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Pupa (left) and adult (right) glasshouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Photo: Syngenta Bioline)

Whitefly Biological Conrol:

Whitefly is an important pest of protected crops. Adults usually found laying eggs on underside of the youngest leaves. Newly hatched larvae are mobile for a few hours before settling as immobile 'scales' where they suck plant sap. High numbers of whitefly produce large quantities of honeydew encouraging black sooty mould.

Encarline f (Encarsia formosa)

Encarsia adult (Photo: Holt Studios) Type: Parasitic wasp.

How it works:

Adult wasp lays 60 - 100 eggs singly into whitefly scales, which turn black as the parasite develops.

Species controlled:

Glasshouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) and limited control of cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci).

When to use:

Encarsia are introduced as pupae either on cards, which are hung within the crop or as loose black scales.
Fargro CodePack Size
FGFLIEncarsia, 3000, 50 cards, 60 per card
FGFLSEncarsia, 6000, 100 cards, 60 per card
FGFLFEncarsia, 15,000, 250 cards, 60 per card
FGLENEncarsia, 10,000 loose scales
FGFIBMixture with Eretmocerus, 10000, 40 blisters
FGFIDMixture with Eretmocerus, 15000, 250 card, 60 per card
Encarline Packs

Rates of use:

Cool grown crops: 3 wasps per 1m2 until week 12 and then 1 wasp per 1m2 per week.
Heated crops: 0.5 to 1 wasp per 1 m2. If whitefly are present increase rate to 5 wasps per 1 m2 for 6 weeks.
Poinsettia: Preventative is 1 wasp per 3 plants per week; curative or where Bemisia tabaci (cotton whitefly) is suspected then 1 wasp per plant per week.

Also available as a 50:50 mix with Eretmocerus to provide improved control of whitefly on many crops.
20/08/13

Eretline e (Eretmocerus eremicus)

Eretmocerus adult (Photo: Holt Studios) Type: Parasitic wasp.

How it works:

The orange/yellow coloured adult wasp lays an egg next to and slightly below a developing whitefly larva (scale). This hatches and feeds on the whitefly larva finally pupating within the empty host skin as a light yellow 'mummy'. A small hole may be found after the adult wasp has emerged from the whitefly pupa.

Species controlled:

This very useful parasitoid can attack, kill and develop in several whitefly species, including Bemisia tabaci (cotton whitefly) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (glasshouse whitefly).

When to use:

On heated, edible and ornamental crops (+16C) this wasp can be used throughout the year. On other crops use late spring to late autumn; ideal for poinsettia crops.
Fargro CodePack Size
FGETAEretmocerus eremicus, 3000, bottle
FGETCEretmocerus, 5000, 20 blisters
FGETEEretmocerus, 3000, 60 cards, 50 per card
FGETFEretmocerus, 10000, 200 cards, 50 per card
FGETGEretmocerus, 15000, 250 card, 60 per card
FGFIBMixture with Encarsia, 10000, 40 blisters
FGFIDMixture with Encarsia, 15000, 250 card, 60 per card


Rates of use:

2 to 8 wasps per m2 of crop area, introduce low rate weekly or high, curative rate for a minimum of 5 to 6 weeks.
Also available as a 50:50 mix with Encarsia to provide improved control of whitefly on many crops.

This parasite is released under licence for use on glasshouse grown crops, please contact Fargro for further details.
20/08/13

Macroline (Macrolophus pygmaeus (formerly Macrolophus caliginosus))

Macrolophus nymph (Photo: Holt Studios) Type: Predatory bug.

How it works:

Adults and nymphs attack all stages of pest.

Species controlled:

Whitefly, but will also feed on leafhopper, caterpillar, leaf miner, spider mite and most soft bodied prey.

When to use:

Early season. Used mainly on tomatoes (not cherry tomatoes) and aubergines. Consult Fargro for advice.

Rates of use:

0.5 to 1 per m2, usually as a single introduction in early season. Long generation time of six weeks means that it takes time before it exerts a significant effect on the pest populations and other controls will be necessary before it is fully established.

This predator is released under licence for use on a limited range of glasshouse grown crops, please contact Fargro for further details.
Fargro CodePack Size
FGFLBAdults/nymphs, 250
FGFLDAdults/nymphs, 500
FGFLCNymphs, 500
20/08/13

Montyline am (Amblyseius (Typhlodromips) montdorensis)

Amblyseius montdorensis adults <br/>(Photo: Holt Studios) Type: Predatory mite.

How it works:

Predates but can survive in the absence of prey feeding on pollen.

Species controlled:

Predates on whitefly (eggs and larvae), as well as thrips. It will not control established populations or where large numbers of adults are moving into the crop. Consumes more thrips per day than the standard A. cucumeris and unlike A. cucumeris will predate on second instar thrips. Populations have the potential to grow faster than A. cucumeris.

When to use:

Introduce early into the crop cycle to protect. Requires minimum temperatures of 15C night and 20C day.

This predator is released under licence for use on a limited range of glasshouse grown crops, please contact Fargro for further details.
Fargro CodePack Size
FGMOB 1 l tube, 25,000
FGMOC 5 l bag, 125,000
FGMOA Mini sachets , x 1000
FGMOD Gemini sachets, x 500
FGMOE CRS no hooks, 500 sachets
FGMOF Bugline 6 x 100 m, 6 strips continuous sachets 1 in 6 filled
FGMOG Bugline 6 x 160 m, 6 strips continuous sachets 1 in 6 filled
Montyline am Packs
16/08/13

Swirskline as (Amblyseius swirskii)

Fargro CodePack Size
FGFLU Vermiculite/bran, 1 l tube, 25,000
FGFLW Vermiculite/bran, 5 l bulk bag, 125,000
FGFLZ Gemini sachets, x 100
FGFLX Gemini sachets, x 500
FGFLO Sachets with hooks x 500
Type: Predatory mite.

How it works: Predates and can survive in the absence of prey feeding on pollen and mould.

Species controlled:

Predates on whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci) eggs and larvae, as well as, to a lesser extent, spider mite and thrips. It will not control established populations or where large numbers of adults are moving into the crop.

When to use:

Introduce early into the crop cycle, to protect. Requires a minimum temperature of over 18C. Unsuitable for some crops.

This predator is released under licence for use on glasshouse grown crops, please contact Fargro for further details.

20/08/13

See Also:

Naturalis-L
SB Plant Invigorator
Mycotal
View our full range of biological controls